Topic of the Month

November 2015
Adaptations at School

Some students need accommodations or modifications to their educational program in order to be successful at school.  These should be clearly outlined in the child’s IEP. 

An accommodation allows a student to complete the same assignment as other students but permits a change in the timing, formatting, setting, scheduling, response or presentation.  An accommodation does not alter what the assignment measures.  Examples include giving a test to the student in a quiet room or in large print text.

A modification adjusts the expectations for an assignment or test.  It permits a change in what a test or assignment measures.  If a child is tested at a different level of difficulty instead of the grade level standard, that child’s work is being modified.


Adapt the number of items that the learner is expected to learn or complete. Adapt the size of the information by enlarging physically.

Adapt the time allotted and allowed for learning, task completion, or testing.

Increase the amount of assistance for a specific learner - utilize a paraprofessional, another teacher, or a student partner. 

Adapt the way instruction is delivered to the learner. Determine HOW the student learns – visual, auditory, etc.

Adapt the skill level, problem type, or the rules on how the learner may approach the work.

Adapt how the learner can respond to instruction.

Adapt the extent to which a learner is actively involved in the task. (partial participation)

Adapt the goals or outcome expectations while using the same basic materials.  Base this on goals from the IEP. 

For INPUT and OUTPUT adaptations, consider AIM - Accessible Instructional Materials.


October 2015

The venues in which bullying can occur are increasing.  Humiliation and bullying is not only prevalent in the classroom and in the community, but also online, where many youth spend their time.  This can amplify the hurt since an entire online audience is witness to the attacks. 

Illinois law states that “no student shall be subjected to bullying;

(1)during any school-sponsored education program or activity;

(2)while in school, on school property, on school buses or other school vehicles, at designated school bus stops waiting for the school bus, or at school-sponsored or school-sanctioned events or activities; or

(3)through the transmission of information from a school computer, a school computer network, or other similar electronic school equipment.

(105 ILCS 5/27-23.7)

The Illinois law on cyberstalking states that “A person commits cyberstalking when he or she engages in a course of conduct using electronic communication directed at a specific person, and he or she knows or should know that would cause a reasonable person to:

(1)fear for his or her safety or the safety of a third person; or

(2)suffer other emotional distress. 

Cyberstalking is a Class 4 felony; a second or subsequent conviction is a Class 3 felony. 

(720 ILCS 5/12-7.5)

You may read these laws by entering the law reference numbers in an online search.

Be sure to join us for webinars on bullying this month and cyberbullying in the near future.  (Register on the EVENTS page.)  These webinars will also be archived on this website once completed.  (Archived webinars are available on the RECORDINGS page.)


September 2015

Least Restrictive Environment for ALL Ages Including Early Childhood

If your child has an Individualized Education Program (IEP), the IEP team of which you are a member, decides your child’s educational placement – where your child will receive the services written into the individualized program.  The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act presumes that the first placement option is the general education classroom in the school your child would attend if she or he did not have a disability.  If your child needs supports or services in that setting in order to benefit from education, then those services should be provided there. 

The federal regulations state that “Each public agency must ensure that to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities, including children in public or private institutions or other care facilities, are educated with children who are nondisabled; and special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational environment occurs only if the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily.”  Section 300.327

Section 300.116(e) states that “a child with a disability is not removed from education in age-appropriate regular classrooms solely because of needed modifications in the general education curriculum”.

The U.S. Departments of Education and Health and Human Services released guidance on September 14, 2015 related to the inclusion of children into high-quality early childhood programs with nondisabled peers. 

View the guidance here: or


August 2015

Which District is the Resident District Responsible for Serving a Student?

The rules of residency are found in the Illinois School Code.  In general:

The resident district is the school district in which the parent or guardian, or both parent and guardian, of the student reside when:

(1)The parent has legal guardianship of the student and resides within Illinois; or

(2)An individual guardian has been appointed by the courts and resides within Illinois; or

(3)An Illinois public agency has legal guardianship and the student resides either in the home of the parent or within the same district as the parent; or

(4)An Illinois court orders a residential placement but the parents retain any legal rights or guardianship and have not been subject to a termination of parental rights order.


In cases of divorced or separated parents, when only one parent has legal guardianship or custody, the district in which the parent having legal guardianship or \custody resides is the resident district.  When both parents retain legal guardianship or custody, the resident district is the district in which either parent who provides the student’s primary regular fixed night-time abode resides; provided, that the election of resident district may be made only one time per school year.

105 ILCS 5/14-1.11

But there are special circumstances:

The resident district is the school district in which the student resides when:

(1)The parent has legal guardianship but the location of the parent is unknown; or

(2)An individual guardian has been appointed but the location of the guardian is unknown; or

(3)The student is 18 years of age or older and no legal guardian has been appointed; or

(4)The student is legally an emancipated minor; or

(5)An Illinois public agency has legal guardianship and such agency or any court in this State has placed the student residentially outside of the school district in which the parent lives. 

105 ILCS 5/14-1.11a
An adult can be considered to have “legal custody” of a child if the adult has “assumed and exercises legal responsibility for the pupil and provides the pupil with a regular fixed night abode for purposes OTHER than to have access to the educational programs of the district”. 


For homeless families:

The resident district of a homeless student is the Illinois district in which the student enrolls for educational services. 

105 ILCS 5/14-1.11a

Any Illinois child has the right to finish the school year in the school he or she lawfully started the year in, regardless of whether the child subsequently moves out of the District. 


For questions regarding residency, call the Illinois State Board of Education at 217-782-4321.


July 2015
Your Child's Educational Records

By reviewing test scores and evaluation data, past IEPs, and progress reports, you will be better prepared to participate in planning for your child's educational programming. By reviewing progress toward past goals as documented in your child's educational records, you will be able to see which supports or settings have produced the most educational benefit.

Your home school district is responsible for maintaining your child's educational records. Your child's permanent record includes your child's name, date of birth, address, attendance record, grades, etc. Your child's temporary record includes all other records such as psychological test results, IEPs, behavior reports, etc. You have a right to inspect and review these records. 

         If you do not currently have a copy of all of your child's records, and wish to receive a copy, send your request in writing to your local school district and include your local school district and include your child's name, date of birth, and current attendance center.

         If you want a complete set of records, be sure to indicate that you are requesting both "permanent" and temporary" records. If you do not need your child's complete record, identify which documents you are requesting.

         You may be charged a copying fee by the district. This is not to exceed 35 cents per page. (23 Illinois Administrative Code Section 375.50)
 23 Illinois Administrative Code Section 375 

The school district must provide a copy of evaluation reports and the documentation of determination of eligibility at no cost. (34 CFR 300.613 (a)) Federal Regulations 300.306

The agency must comply with a parental request to inspect and review records without unnecessary delay and BEFORE any meeting regarding an IEP. (34 CFR 300.613(a)) Federal Regulations 300.613

The right to get copies must be granted within a reasonable time and in no case later than 15 school days after the date of receipt of such request by the official records custodian. (Illinois School Student Records Act 105 ILCS 10/5 (c)) Illinois School Student Records Act


June 2015
Summer Behavior

Top 5 Summer Vacation Problems with Troubled Children – and How to Handle Them

Choose peace as much as possible

If your child is oppositional or defiant, choose your battles carefully over the summer. Three months is a long time and if you try to change every behavior that’s annoying, it’s going to be even longer! Whenever an argument starts, ask yourself: Is this my problem or my child’s? Is it a legal or safety issue? Is it worth getting upset over? In a year or two, when I look back at this, will it be a big deal?

Asking yourself these questions can help you to determine if you’re micro-managing your child and stressing yourself out in the process or simply leading and guiding your child, which is a much more effective role to play.


1.      My teenager won’t get a summer job.

2.      During the summer, there are more opportunities for my child to get into trouble: more parties; more friends wanting to “hang out” (who are bad influences).

3.      My child has to attend summer school, but he refuses to get up in the morning.

4.      My child is supposed to attend summer school but we have a vacation planned.

5.      My kid is up all night and sleeps all day. I can’t get him to do anything!

To read the tips & suggestions to these five summer problems with troubled children, follow this link:


May 2015
Development of IEPs for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

If your child is diagnosed on the autism spectrum, he or she may have complex needs making it challenging for schools to provide effective and appropriate education experiences.  The IEP team must consider seven special factors when developing your child’s Individualized Education Program.  They are:


1.      The verbal and nonverbal communication needs of the child.

2.      The need to develop social interaction skills and proficiencies.

3.      The needs resulting from the child’s unusual responses to sensory experiences.

4.      The needs resulting from resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines.

5.      The needs resulting from engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements.

6.      The need for any positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports to address any behavioral difficulties resulting from autism spectrum disorder.

7.      Other needs resulting from the child’s disability that impact progress in the general curriculum, including social and emotional development.

By assessing these needs, schools are better able to frame effective supports which result in improved outcomes for students on the autism spectrum. 

Read the details of each of these seven factors in an Illinois State Board of Education memo sent to all district superintendents and directors of special education at


April 2015
Summary of Performance

Will your child graduate this year?  Or age-out of special education services?  All students with an IEP receive a Summary of Performance document as they exit the school system.  The document from the school summarizes your child’s academic achievement and functional performance AND includes recommendations on what assistance your child will need to reach goals after leaving school.  Your child has the opportunity to actively participate in the development of this document.

The Summary of Performance is critical as it establishes eligibility for reasonable accommodations and supports in a college setting, and can be used during the application process for vocational rehabilitation training and/or employment. 

You may want to review a blank form before your child’s IEP meeting during the final year of school services.  The form can be viewed or downloaded from this page of the Illinois State Board of Education’s website – look through the forms for “Summary of Performance”:

You can view Power Point slides about this topic at:

The slides provide practical information about the development and use of the tool.  Viewers can access the slide ‘notes’ by hovering over the icon in the upper left-hand corner of the slide page.  


March 2015
Student Discipline - Manifestation Determination Reviews

Students who qualify for special education services cannot be disciplined more severely than other students for breaking the same rule.  A student with a disability can receive the SAME discipline at school as other students except, different rules apply for suspensions beyond 10 days.  When a student faces a suspension that could result in removal from educational services for more than 10 consecutive days, or when the suspension would cause the student to exceed 10 days of suspension for the school year, the district is required to conduct a Manifestation Determination Review. 

The MDR is conducted to decide if the student’s disability was the primary cause of the incident in question.  The team, including the parent, meets to determine:

1)      If the conduct was caused by, or had a direct and substantial relationship to, the disability

2)      If the conduct was the direct result of the district’s failure to implement the current IEP/Behavior Intervention Plan

If so, the district may NOT discipline the student but the current IEP and Behavior Intervention Plan need to be reviewed to determine appropriateness in meeting the student’s needs. 

If the team decides the conduct was NOT related to the disability, the student may be recommended for continued suspension or expulsion.  Some special education services will continue to be provided, although the setting and services may be altered during the disciplinary action. 

Students whose conduct involved a weapon or the use or possession of illegal drugs, or resulted in serious bodily injury, may be removed to an alternative setting for up to 45 school days regardless of a relationship to the disability.

This information and more is available in Chapter 9 of the manual Educational Rights and Responsibilities:  Understanding Special Education in Illinois developed by the Illinois State Board of Education and can be found at:


February 2015
Executive Functioning Difficulties

Is your child good at planning? Organizing? Prioritizing? Distinguishing main ideas from details? Adjusting to changes? Analyzing what has been accomplished and what still needs to be done?

If not, your child may need explicit instruction on executive functioning skills.  Some children need help establishing goals, applying techniques and strategies, and learning to work independently.  They may need to be taught skills in planning, organizing, prioritizing, memorizing, editing, and managing materials and deadlines.  They may need help finding tools and strategies and then knowing how, when, and where to use them.  Teachers and parents can model techniques, guide practice, and provide feedback until the child can learn to apply the strategies independently. 

Read more at: Smart Kids with Learning Disabilities &

Child Mind Institute

Get ideas on how to teach executive function skills by borrowing this book from our library:
Executive Function in Education-From Theory to Practice
Edited by Lynn Meltzer
Go to
(There is a chapter specific to children with nonverbal learning disabilities and another one specific to children diagnosed on the autism spectrum.) 


January 2015

Extended School Year Services

Some students require the provision of special education services beyond the district’s normal school year in order to receive a free, appropriate public education (FAPE).  The student’s IEP will then describe the amount, frequency, duration, and location of those services.  This is the time of year to begin the discussion. 
Extended School Year services are not the same as summer school services.  Summer school is an optional program a district may choose to offer.  ESY services are different in that they are provided to ensure that a student receiving special education services will maintain and enhance the generalization of learned skills. 
In Educational Rights and Responsibilities:  Understanding Special Education in Illinois, the parent guide produced by the Illinois State Board of Education, extended school year services are described as “special education and related services that 1) are provided to a student with an IEP beyond the normal school day/year, 2) are stated in the student’s IEP, and 3) are provided at no cost to the parents of the student.  The decision about what services will be provided should be individually based on the needs of the student.  Loss of knowledge/skills or an extraordinarily long time in re-learning skills (regression/recoupment) can be part of, but not the only reason for determining ESY.  No single factor can determine ESY, and ESY services may not be limited to particular categories of disability.  ESY services may not be the same as services provided during the regular school year.  The IEP team determines what services are provided during the ESY term.  ESY services can be provided in school, at home, or in the community.”
All students who are eligible for special education must be considered for ESY eligibility annually.  The decision should be based on data collection, parent input, expert opinions, and consideration of the child’s progress and needs.  The decision as to eligibility is documented in the IEP.  Many court cases, including Johnson v. Independent School District No. 4 in 1990 in the 10th Circuit Court, have affirmed a need to look at multiple factors for determining eligibility.  Factors to consider during the eligibility discussion include:

1-nature of child’s disability

2-progress on goals/objectives

3-emerging skills

4-behavior issues

5-regression and recoupment

6-physical/health issues

7-availability of alternative resources

8-vocational issues

9-social skills/peer interaction

The amount of ESY service a child receives must be determined on an individual basis.  ESY services may be, or include, ‘related services’ such as speech therapy, occupational therapy, and physical therapy.  Transportation to ESY services must be provided if necessary for the student to benefit from the special education services. ESY services must be provided by qualified and certified staff or persons who are supervised by such staff. 
Read section 226.230(a) of the Illinois Administrative Code at:

Read section 300.106 of the Code of Federal regulations at:
View a copy of the Educational Rights and Responsibilities:  Understanding Special Education in Illinois at: